Data Format and Conversion Information for Heritage Data at theNational Space Science Data Center 

NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA 
Numeric data may have characteroriented or binary representations. In the former, the number "27" would be represented by two pairs of (typically) 6 or 8 bits, one set representing the character "2" and the other set the character "7". One example of this kind of representation is known as "ASCII" characters. ASCII is the abbreviation for the "American Standard Code for Information Interchange". Specific information about character representations is documented here for various formats (see Alphanumeric Characters , below).
Binary Data uses sets of N bits (N is typically 16, 18, 32, 36, 48, or 60 bits  or more!) to represent numbers of a wide range of sizes. Binary representations may be pure integer numbers or floating point (also called "real") numbers.
NOTE: Some of the tables in the links below are wide; if you print
pages with these tables, you might have to use landscape
mode to prevent table truncation.
N = (sign) × (fraction) × ( base^{ exponentbias} ).Sign is + or ; fraction is usually 0<= fraction <1; base is usually 2; and exponent and bias are integers.
PDP10 Note: The PDP10 is the same computer
as the DEC10.
Xerox/Scientific Data Systems Sigma 9
Xerox/Scientific Data Systems Sigma 5Original Author: George Fleming
NASA Goddard Space
Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA