Jupiter Fact Sheet


Jupiter

Jupiter/Earth Comparison


Bulk parameters

   
   Jupiter  
 
   Earth   
Ratio
(Jupiter/Earth)
Mass (1024 kg) 1,898.19 5.9724 317.83
Volume (1010 km3) 143,128 108.321 1321.33
Equatorial radius (1 bar level) (km) 71,492 6,378.1 11.209
Polar radius (km) 66,854 6,356.8 10.517
Volumetric mean radius (km) 69,911 6,371.0 10.973
Ellipticity 0.06487 0.00335 19.36
Mean density (kg/m3) 1,326 5,514 0.240
Gravity (eq., 1 bar) (m/s2) 24.79 9.80 2.530
Acceleration (eq., 1 bar) (m/s2) 23.12 9.78 2.364
Escape velocity (km/s) 59.5 11.19 5.32
GM (x 106 km3/s2) 126.687 0.39860 317.83
Bond albedo 0.343 0.306 1.12
Visual geometric albedo 0.52 0.367 1.42
Visual magnitude V(1,0) -9.40 -3.86 -
Solar irradiance (W/m2) 50.26 1361.0 0.037
Black-body temperature (K) 109.9 254.0 0.433
Moment of inertia (I/MR2) 0.254 0.3308 0.768
J2 (x 10-6) 14,736 1082.63 13.611
Number of natural satellites 67 1  
Planetary ring system Yes No  

Orbital parameters

   
   Jupiter   
 
   Earth   
Ratio
(Jupiter/Earth)
Semimajor axis (106 km) 778.57 149.60 5.204
Sidereal orbit period (days) 4,332.589 365.256 11.862
Tropical orbit period (days) 4,330.595 365.242 11.857
Perihelion (106 km) 740.52 147.09 5.034
Aphelion (106 km) 816.62 152.10 5.369
Synodic period (days) 398.88 - -
Mean orbital velocity (km/s) 13.06 29.78 0.439
Max. orbital velocity (km/s) 13.72 30.29 0.453
Min. orbital velocity (km/s) 12.44 29.29 0.425
Orbit inclination (deg) 1.304 0.000 -
Orbit eccentricity 0.0489 0.0167 2.928
Sidereal rotation period (hrs) 9.9250* 23.9345 0.415
Length of day (hrs) 9.9259 24.0000 0.414
Obliquity to orbit (deg) 3.13 23.44 0.134
Inclination of equator (deg) 3.13 23.44 0.134

* System III (1965.0) coordinates


Jupiter Observational Parameters

Discoverer: Unknown Discovery Date: Prehistoric Distance from Earth Minimum (106 km) 588.5 Maximum (106 km) 968.1 Apparent diameter from Earth Maximum (seconds of arc) 50.1 Minimum (seconds of arc) 29.8 Mean values at opposition from Earth Distance from Earth (106 km) 628.76 Apparent diameter (seconds of arc) 46.9 Apparent visual magnitude -2.7 Maximum apparent visual magnitude -2.94

Jupiter Mean Orbital Elements (J2000)

Semimajor axis (AU)                  5.20336301  
Orbital eccentricity                 0.04839266   
Orbital inclination (deg)            1.30530  
Longitude of ascending node (deg)  100.55615   
Longitude of perihelion (deg)       14.75385   
Mean Longitude (deg)                34.40438  

North Pole of Rotation

Right Ascension: 268.057 - 0.006T
Declination    :  64.495 + 0.002T
Reference Date : 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)
T = Julian centuries from reference date 

Jovian Magnetosphere

Model GSFC-O6
Dipole field strength: 4.30 Gauss-Rj3
Dipole tilt to rotational axis: 9.4 degrees
Longitude of tilt: 200.1 degrees
Dipole offset: 0.119 Rj
Surface (1 Rj) field strength: 4.0 - 13.0 Gauss

Rj denotes Jovian model radius, defined here to be 71,398 km


Jovian Atmosphere

Surface Pressure: >>1000 bars  
Temperature at 1 bar: 165 K (-108 C)
Temperature at 0.1 bar: 112 K (-161 C)
Density at 1 bar: 0.16 kg/m3
Wind speeds
   Up to 150 m/s (<30 degrees latitude)
   Up to  40 m/s (>30 degrees latitude)
Scale height: 27 km
Mean molecular weight: 2.22 
Atmospheric composition (by volume, uncertainty in parentheses)
    Major:       Molecular hydrogen (H2) - 89.8% (2.0%); Helium (He) - 10.2% (2.0%)
    Minor (ppm): Methane (CH4) - 3000 (1000); Ammonia (NH3) - 260 (40);
                 Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) - 28 (10); Ethane (C2H6) - 5.8 (1.5);
                 Water (H2O) - 4 (varies with pressure)
    Aerosols:    Ammonia ice, water ice, ammonia hydrosulfide

Notes on the factsheets - definitions of parameters, units, notes on sub- and superscripts, etc.
Jovian Satellite Fact Sheet
Jovian Rings Fact Sheet

Planetary Fact Table - metric units
Planetary Fact Table - U.S. units
Planetary Fact Table - Earth ratio

Jupiter Home Page
Directory to other Planetary Fact Sheets


NASA
Author/Curator:
Dr. David R. Williams, dave.williams@nasa.gov
NSSDCA, Mail Code 690.1
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
+1-301-286-1258


NASA Official: Ed Grayzeck, edwin.j.grayzeck@nasa.gov
Last Updated: 19 May 2016, DRW