Venus Fact Sheet


Venus

Venus/Earth Comparison


Bulk parameters

   
   Venus   
 
   Earth   
Ratio
(Venus/Earth)
Mass (1024 kg) 4.8675 5.9724 0.815
Volume (1010 km3) 92.843 108.321 0.857
Equatorial radius (km) 6051.8 6378.1 0.949
Polar radius (km) 6051.8 6356.8 0.952
Volumetric mean radius (km) 6051.8 6371.0 0.950
Ellipticity (Flattening) 0.000 0.00335 0.0
Mean density (kg/m3) 5243 5514 0.951
Surface gravity (eq.) (m/s2) 8.87 9.80 0.905
Surface acceleration (eq.) (m/s2) 8.87 9.78 0.907
Escape velocity (km/s) 10.36 11.19 0.926
GM (x 106 km3/s2) 0.32486 0.39860 0.815
Bond albedo 0.77 0.306 2.52
Visual geometric albedo 0.67 0.367 1.77
Visual magnitude V(1,0) -4.40 -3.86 -
Solar irradiance (W/m2) 2601.3 1361.0 1.911
Black-body temperature (K) 226.6 254.0 0.892
Topographic range (km) 13 20 0.650
Moment of inertia (I/MR2) 0.33 0.3308 0.998
J2 (x 10-6) 4.458 1082.63 0.004
Number of natural satellites 0 1  
Planetary ring system No No  


Orbital parameters

   
   Venus   
 
   Earth   
Ratio
(Venus/Earth)
Semimajor axis (106 km) 108.21 149.60 0.723
Sidereal orbit period (days) 224.701 365.256 0.615
Tropical orbit period (days) 224.695 365.242 0.615
Perihelion (106 km) 107.48 147.09 0.731
Aphelion (106 km) 108.94 152.10 0.716
Synodic period (days) 583.92 - -
Mean orbital velocity (km/s) 35.02 29.78 1.176
Max. orbital velocity (km/s) 35.26 30.29 1.164
Min. orbital velocity (km/s) 34.79 29.29 1.188
Orbit inclination (deg) 3.39 0.00 -
Orbit eccentricity 0.0067 0.0167 0.401
Sidereal rotation period (hrs) -5832.6 23.9345 243.690
Length of day (hrs) 2802.0 24.0000 116.750
Obliquity to orbit (deg) 177.36 23.44 -
Inclination of equator (deg) 2.64 23.44 0.113

Venus Observational Parameters

Discoverer:      Unknown
Discovery Date:  Prehistoric

Distance from Earth
        Minimum (106 km)            38.2
        Maximum (106 km)           261.0
Apparent diameter from Earth
        Maximum (seconds of arc)    66.0
        Minimum (seconds of arc)     9.7
Maximum visual magnitude            -4.6
Mean values at inferior conjunction with Earth
        Distance from Earth (106 km)         41.44    
        Apparent diameter (seconds of arc)   60.2

Venus Mean Orbital Elements (J2000)

Semimajor axis (AU)                  0.72333199  
Orbital eccentricity                 0.00677323   
Orbital inclination (deg)            3.39471   
Longitude of ascending node (deg)   76.68069  
Longitude of perihelion (deg)      131.53298  
Mean Longitude (deg)               181.97973

North Pole of Rotation

Right Ascension: 272.76
Declination    :  67.16
Reference Date : 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)

Venus Atmosphere


Surface pressure: 92 bars  
Surface density: ~65. kg/m3
Scale height: 15.9 km
Total mass of atmosphere:  ~4.8 x 1020 kg
Average temperature: 737 K (464 C)
Diurnal temperature range: ~0 
Wind speeds: 0.3 to 1.0 m/s (surface)
Mean molecular weight: 43.45 
Atmospheric composition (near surface, by volume): 
    Major:       96.5% Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 3.5% Nitrogen (N2) 
    Minor (ppm): Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) - 150; Argon (Ar) - 70; Water (H2O) - 20;
                 Carbon Monoxide (CO) - 17; Helium (He) - 12; Neon (Ne) - 7

Notes on the factsheets - definitions of parameters, units, notes on sub- and superscripts, etc.

Planetary Fact Table - metric units
Planetary Fact Table - U.S. units
Planetary Fact Table - Earth ratio


Venus Home Page
Directory to other Planetary Fact Sheets

NASA
Author/Curator:
Dr. David R. Williams, dave.williams@nasa.gov
NSSDCA, Mail Code 690.1
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
+1-301-286-1258


NASA Official: Ed Grayzeck, edwin.j.grayzeck@nasa.gov
Last Updated: 16 May 2016, DRW