1993-066A (22871) INTELSAT 7-F1 Oct 22 1993-061F (22828) ITAMSAT Sep 26 065A (22869) STS 58 Oct 18 061E (22827) HEALTHSAT 1 Sep 26 064A (22867) PROGRESS M-20 Oct 11 061D (22826) POSAT 1 Sep 26 063A (22859) JIANBING 93 Oct 08 061C (22825) KITSAT 2 Sep 26 062A (22836) RADUGA 30 Sep 30 061B (22824) STELLA Sep 26 061G (22829) EYESAT 1 Sep 26 061A (22823) SPOT 3 Sep 26
The GPS 2-NN series orbit in six distinct planes that are 60 deg apart. Each plane has four "slots." Following are the members of the planes/slots:
PLANE RAAN OF PLANE SLOT-1 SLOT-2 SLOT-3 SLOT-4 A 269 2-21 2-12 2-15 2-04 B 329 2-18 2-07 2-02 2-22 C 29 (0009) 2-13 2-19 2-20 D 89 2-11 2-09 2-05 ---- E 149 2-01 2-08 2-03 2-10 F 209 2-16 2-14 2-06 2-170009 will soon be replaced by GPS 2-23 (NAVSTAR 34; PRN 4), to be launched in October 1993.
Designations Common Name 1993 1992-060C (22118) R/B HISPASAT 20 Oct 1993-064B (22868) R/B PROGRESS M-20 13 Oct 1993-052A (22745) PROGRESS M-19 13 Oct 1993-063B (22865) R/B JIANBING 93 09 Oct 1993-051B (22742) R/B COSMOS 2261 06 Oct 1993-062B (22837) R/B RADUGA 30 03 Oct 1977-082A (10315) MOLNIYA 1-38 28 Sep 1993-058C (22798) ORFEUS SPA 22 Sep 1993-058A (22795) STS 51 Landed on 22 Sep
GRO (1991-027B) was maneuvered in October 1993 to move to a higher apogee at 450 km; a similar maneuver in late November will move the perigee to 450 km. These maneuvers enable extension of the life span of the spacecraft.
ESA BULLETIN, August 1993, pages 91-94
A DESCRIPTION OF MIR STATION
The MIR space station circles the Earth at an altitude of between 350 and 400 km in an orbit with an inclination of 51.6 degrees. In its present configuration, MIR consists of four main modules: the MIR core module and the scientific modules known as KVANT, KVANT-2,S and KRISTALL.
The MIR core module, which was launched in February 1986, has a mass of approximately 21 tons, a length of about 13.1 m, and a maximum diameter of 4.2 m. It consists primarily of a passage area with five docking ports, a working area housing the command station, living/eating and hygiene facilities, and a propulsion section through which a tunnel allows access to the KVANT module.
KVANT, an astrophysics module that accommodates instruments from several countries, was docked to the MIR core module in April 1987. It is about 5.8 m long, has a maximum diameter of 4.15 m, and a mass of about 11 tons.
KVANT-2, a module housing scientific and technological experiment equipment, a shower facility, and an airlock supporting extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crew, was docked to the station in December 1989. It has a mass of 19.5 tons, a length of 11.9 m, and a maximum diameter of 4.35 m.
The KRISTALL module joined the station in June 1990. It is mainly dedicated to technological research, such as semiconductor and biological experiments. It also houses Earth-observation instruments. The mass and dimensions of KRISTALL are similar to those of KVANT-2.
In August 1992, a thruster package, known as SOFORA, was installed on a 14-m mast mounted on top of the KVANT module. These thrusters allow efficient and propellant-saving attitude control of the station. Two further modules are plannned to be added to MIR. The PRIRODA module, mainly dedicated to Earth- observation tasks such as ocean surface-temperature measurement and studies of ocean/atmosphere interactions, and the SPECTR module, supporting studies of the Earth's atmosphere.
Logistical resupply of MIR is provided by the unmanned PROGRESS system, with a payload capacity in the order of 2.5 tons. The crew is transported to and from the station with the SOYUZ-TM vehicle, which can accommodate three astronauts/cosmonauts per trip. Both the SOYUZ-TM and PROGRESS are expendable systems and are launched by the SOYUZ launch vehicle.
The results of the experiments, including samples, film, etc., are usually returned to Earth by the astronaut/cosmonaut on board the SOYUZ-TM capsule. A special unmanned re-entry capsule enhances these return capacities.
Erratum: In SPACEWARN Bulletin Number 472 covering February 1993 launches, the correct launch date of OXP-1 (1993-009A) is 9 February 1993.
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