SPACEWARN Bulletin Number 493
A publication of NASA's National Space Science Data Center/World Data Center-A for Rockets
and Satellites on behalf of IUWDS/COSPAR
25 November 1994
All information in this publication was received between
October 25, 1994, and November 24, 1994.
A. List of New International Designations and Launch Dates.
USSPACECOM Catalog numbers are in parentheses.
1994-076C (22398) Cosmos 2296 Nov 20
-076B (23397) Cosmos 2295 Nov 20
-076A (23396) Cosmos 2294 Nov 20
-075A (23348) PROGRESS M-25 Nov 11
-074A (23342) RESURS-01 Nov 04
-073B (23341) CRISTA-SPAS Nov 04
-073A (23340) STS 66 Nov 03
-072A (23336) Cosmos 2293 Nov 02
-071A (23333) Wind Nov 01
-070A (23331) ASTRA 1-D Nov 01
-069A (23327) ELECTRO Oct 31
RESURS name correction appears in
SPACEWARN Bulletin 495
B. Text of Launch Announcements.
1994-076C, 1994-076B, 1994-076A
Cosmos 2296, Cosmos 2295, and Cosmos 2294 are the three
latest additions to the Russian fleet of global positioning
spacecraft (GLONASS), and were launched by a Proton-K rocket from
Baykonur cosmodrome at 00:09 UT. The fleet now totals 21
spacecraft plus a reserve; three more spacecraft that are to be
launched in 1995 will complete the constellation of 24 spacecraft.
The GLONASS series enables position measurement at land or sea within
an error of 100 meters. Initial orbital parameters were period
2 hr, apogee/perigee 19,000 km, and inclination 71 deg. (The
three spacecraft will be listed in section C-3 of a later issue,
after additional data could be procured.)
PROGRESS M-25, a Russian automatic cargo ship, was launched
from Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz-U rocket, and headed to dock
with the MIR space station to provide supplies to the station. The
cargo ship carried more than two tons of supplies, and a returnable
RADUGA capsule to bring back about 150 kg of experimental results
from MIR. Initial orbital parameters were period 92.4 min, apogee
394 km, perigee 342 km, and inclination 51.6 deg.
RESURS-01, a Russian natural resources spacecraft, was launched
from Baykonur cosmodrome by a Zenit-2 rocket at 05:46 UT in a
Sun-synchronous orbit. This is the third of the RESURS-01 series ,
and a likely alternative name may be RESURS 1-3. Initial orbital
parameters were period 98 min, apogee 691.4 km, perigee 663.8 km,
and inclination 98 deg.
CRISTA-SPAS, a German spacecraft, was released from STS 66
on 4 November and captured back on 12 November. It carried
spectraphotometers to monitor gases in the middle atmosphere
and lower thermosphere. Orbital parameters were close to
those of STS 66.
STS 66, a U.S.A. shuttle spacecraft, was launched from Cape
Canaveral at 06:59 UT. The primary payload was the ATLAS-3
laboratory containing two instruments (SOLCON, and SOLSPEC)
to measure solar emissions in the visible and UV bands, and a UV
backscatter monitor to measure ozone concentrations. The shuttle
also carried many pregnant and nonpregnant rats for biological
studies. Initial orbital parameters were period 90.6 min, apogee
310 km, perigee 296 km, and inclination 57 deg.
Cosmos 2293, a Russian military spacecraft, was launched by
a Tsiklon-2 rocket. The initial orbital parameters were period
92.7 min, apogee 436 km, perigee 412 km, and inclination 65 deg.
Wind is a U.S.A. spacecraft in the International Solar Terrestrial
Program (ISTP), and was launched by a Delta-2 rocket from Cape
Canaverl at 23:31 UT. It carried instruments to measure the solar
wind plasma and magnetic field, besides several instruments to
measure very energetic particles and gamma rays. After several
orbits extending to close proximity of the Moon (at about 60
Earth-radii), and involving several thrust-firings during that
phase, the spacecraft will eventually reach the first Lagrangian
point (L-1) located at about 275 Earth-radii in the Sun-ward
direction, and orbit around that point. Orbital parameters are very
variable even during the first two years.
ASTRA 1-D is a geostationary spacecraft of the European Space
Society that was launched by an Ariane 42P rocket from Kourou in
French Guiana at 00:37 UT, to provide direct TV and radio broadcast
to most of Europe, after reaching the parking longitude of 19.2 E.
It carried 18 transponders.
ELECTRO is a Russian geostationary weather spacecraft that was
launched from Baykonur cosmodrome by a Proton rocket. It will
provide cloud cover, and sea temperature maps, along with the data
on the upper boundaries of clouds and wind speeds, to enable
hurricane, floods, and typhoon warnings. It will be parked at 76-E
longitude over the Indian ocean just south of India.
C. Spacecraft Particularly Suited for International Participation
- Spacecraft with essentially continuous radio beacons on frequencies
less than 150 MHz, or higher frequencies if especially suited for ionospheric
or geodetic studies. To see a list select here.
- Global Positioning System satellites useful for navigational
purposes and geodetic studies. To see a list select here.
The GPS 2-NN series orbit in six distinct planes that are 60 deg apart.
Each plane has four "slots." Following are the members of the planes/slots:
PLANE RAAN OF PLANE SLOT-1 SLOT-2 SLOT-3 SLOT-4
A 256 2-21 2-12 2-15 2-04
B 316 2-18 2-07 2-02 2-22
C 16 2-24 2-13 2-19 2-20
D 76 2-11 2-09 2-05 2-23
E 136 2-01 2-08 2-03 2-10
F 196 2-16 2-14 2-06 2-17
- Russian Global Navigational (Positioning) Spacecraft, GLONASS
constellation. To see a list select here.
- Actual decays/landings of payload spacecraft and rocket bodies (R/B)
only. Additional information is not available.
Designations Common Name 1994
1994-076D (23399) R/B COSMOS 2294,2295,2296 20 Nov
1994-073A (23340) STS 66 Landed on 14 Nov
1994-075B (23349) R/B PROGRESS M-25 13 Nov
1994-073B (23341) CRISTA SPAS Recaptured by STS-66 12 Nov
1994-036A (23139) SOYUZ TM-19 04 Nov
1984-029A (14825) MOLNIYA 1-60 04 Nov
1994-069B (23328) R/B ELECTRO 03 Nov
1994-072B (23337) R/B COSMOS 2293 02 Nov
- Miscellaneous Items. (This section contains information/data that
are entered on occasion and may not be repeated in each issue of the
NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S is an archival center for science data from many spacecraft.
Some data are on line for electronic access. Please contact the Request Office,
NSSDC, Code 633, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771, U.S.A., for specific
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Last updated: 23 May 1995, EVB II