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Optical Navigation Camera (ONC)

NSSDCA ID: 2014-076A-03

Mission Name: Hayabusa2


The Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) system on Hayabusa2 consists of one telescopic camera (ONC-T) and two wide angle cameras (ONC-W1 and ONC-W2). ONT-C is a multi-band imager designed to provide visible and near-IR spectrophotometry, enable geomorphologic study of the target asteroid 162173 Ryugu, and provide optical navigation. ONC-W1 and ONC-W2 are visible light imagers designed primarily for optical navigation.

The ONC-T camera consists of a refracting telescope, a filter wheel, a CCD, and associated electronics. The assembly is mounted on the bottom-facing deck of the spacecraft at the corner farthest from the sampler horn and has a nadir view. ONC-T has a field-of-view of 6.35 x 6.35 deg giving a frame size of about 1 x 1 km at 10 km.

The ONC-T optical system is a refracting telescope with a focal length is 121.1 mm and the effective lens aperture of 15.1 mm (f/8.0). Mounted at the end of the telescope is a rotating filter wheel with seven band-pass filters and one panchromatic glass window for correction of the light path length. The center wavelengths of the color filters are 0.39 micron (ul-band), 0.48 micron (b-band), 0.55 micron (v-band), 0.59 micron (Na), 0.70 micron (x-band), 0.86 micron (w-band), and 0.95 micron (p-band). Six of the filters cover the Eight Color Asteroid Survey (ECAS) system bands: ul, b, v, x, w, and p. The filter wheel rate is 9.6 deg/s (4.69 s/filter). After passing through the filter, the image falls on a frame-transfer CCD. The CCD is a back-illuminated multi-pinned phase type, 1056 x 1024 pixels (16 x 1024 pixels on both sides are optical black pixels). The pixel size is 13 x 13 micron. A single pixel sees 22.14 arcsec. The spatial resolution is 1 m/pixel at a range of 10 km and 1 cm/pixel at 100 m. 31 different exposure times ranging from 5.44 ms to 178 s are available.

The wide angle ONC-W1 and ONC-W2 cameras are panchromatic (0.485 – 0.655 micron). Each camera consists of a CCD and associated electronics. Each CCD is 1024 x 1024 pixels and has a field-of-view of 65.24 x 65.24 deg. The spatial resolution is 10 m/pixel at a range of 10 km and 1 mm/pixel at 1 m. ONT-W1 is mounted near the ONC-T and has a nadir view. ONT-W2 is mounted on a side-facing deck of the spacecraft, not far from the sampler horn. It has an oblique view.

The ONC cameras are controlled by an electronics package. All three ONC cameras are body-mounted and cannot be pointed independently of the spacecraft.

Alternate Names

  • Hayabusa2/OpticalNavigationCamera(ONC)
  • ONC-T
  • ONC-W1
  • ONC-W2
  • urn:jaxa:darts:context:instrument:hyb2.onc

Funding Agency

  • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)


  • Planetary Science: Small Bodies

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this experiment can be directed to: Coordinated Request and User Support Office



NameRoleOriginal AffiliationE-mail

Selected References

  • Kameda, S., et al., Preflight Calibration Test Results for Optical Navigation Camera Telescope (ONC-T) Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft, Space Sci. Rev., 208, No. 1-4, 17-31, doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0227-y, Jul. 2017.
  • Suzuki, H., et al., Initial inflight calibration for Hayabusa2 optical navigation camera (ONC) for science observations of asteroid Ryugu, Icarus, 300, 341-359, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.011, Jan. 2018.
  • Watanabe, S., et al., Hayabusa2 arrives at the carbonaceous asteroid 162173 Ryugu—A spinning top-shaped rubble pile, Science, 364, No. 6437, doi:10.1126/science.aav8032, Apr. 2019.
  • Kameda, S., et al., Detectability of hydrous minerals using ONC-T camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft, Adv. Space Res., 56, No. 7, 1519-1524, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.06.037, Oct. 2015.
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