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Bhaskara was the second Indian satellite (the first was Aryabhata with 3 nonmeteorological experiments). It was launched as part of the satellite-for-earth-observations (SEO) program, and was placed in orbit by a Soviet vehicle launched from a Cosmodrome in the U.S.S.R. The main objectives were to conduct earth observation experiments for applications related to hydrology, forestry, and geology using a two-band TV camera system, and to conduct ocean-surface studies using a two-frequency satellite microwave radiometer (SAMIR) system. Secondary objectives were to test engineering and data processing systems, to collect limited meteorological data from remote platforms, and to conduct scientific investigations in X-ray astronomy. Bhaskara was a 26-faced quasi-spherical polyhedron. It had a height of 1.66 m, and a diameter of 1.55 m. Named after the two "Bhaskaracharyas," astronomer-mathematicians of ancient India, the satellite was formally turned off in March 1981. Information and data are available from the Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad, India.

Alternate Names

  • 11392
  • SEO

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 1979-06-07
Launch Vehicle: Modified SS-5 (SKean IRBM) plus Upper Stage
Launch Site: Kapustin Yar, U.S.S.R
Mass: 444 kg

Funding Agencies

  • Intercosmos (U.S.S.R)
  • Indian Space Research Organization (India)


  • Communications
  • Engineering
  • Astronomy
  • Earth Science

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Coordinated Request and User Support Office



NameRoleOriginal AffiliationE-mail
Prof. Udipi Ramachandra RaoProgram ManagerISRO Satellite
Dr. G. JosephProject ScientistSpace Applications Center
Mr. Om P. N. CallaProject ScientistSpace Applications Center
Dr. K. KasturiranganProject DirectorISRO Satellite
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