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The last in a series of multipurpose satellites providing communications and weather forecasting service for India was Delta-launched from Cape Canaveral. INSAT 1D, built by Ford Aerospace (now Loral Inc) for the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) housed 12 C-band transponders for telephone and data communications and two S-band transponders for direct broadcast service. A radiometer returned meteorological imagery for long-term weather forecasting, storm warning and resource management. Positioned above 83.1 deg. e, INSAT 1D replaced INSAT 1B, launched in 1983 and near the end of its life expectancy. The 1D launch was delayed almost a year when a launch pad hoist cable broke and damaged its C-band reflector; this mishap followed solar panel damage suffered during the 1989 San Francisco earthquake. The fourth in the INSAT 1 series, the satellite was box-shaped, measuring 1.55 x 1.42 x 2.18 m. A solar sail and 11.5 sq. m solar panel extended overall length to 19.4 m when deployed. It has a 7-year life expectancy.

Alternate Names

  • 20643
  • Indian National Satellite 1D

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 1990-06-12
Launch Vehicle: Delta
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, United States
Mass: 700 kg
Nominal Power: 1200 W

Funding Agencies

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States)
  • Indian Space Research Organization (India)


  • Communications
  • Earth Science

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Coordinated Request and User Support Office

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