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The Freja spacecraft carried instruments to better understand: the processes responsible for transverse energization of ions over the auroral oval; the nature of plasma cavities and their consequences to hot/cold plasma insteractions; low-altitude electron/ion acceleration; the processes that germinate fine structures over the oval; wave phenomena and wave-particle interactions. The mission was jointly sponsored by Sweden and Germany, as a follow up to the Viking mission. It carried eight instruments to monitor the auroral phenomeno and processes. The spacecraft's spin axis was maintained with about 10 degrees from the Sun, with the spin period varied in the range of 1-5 s.

Alternate Names

  • 22161

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 1992-10-06
Launch Vehicle: Long March
Launch Site: Jiuquan, Peoples Republic of China
Mass: 214 kg
Nominal Power: 168 W

Funding Agencies

  • Max-Planck-Institut (Federal Republic of Germany)
  • Swedish Board for Space Activities (Sweden)


  • Space Physics

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Coordinated Request and User Support Office



NameRoleOriginal AffiliationE-mail
Mr. Sven GrahnProject ManagerSwedish Space Corporation
Prof. Rickard LundinProject ScientistSwedish Institute for Space
Dr. Gerhard HaerendelProject ScientistMax-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische

Selected References

  • Andre, M., The Freja scientific satellite, Swedish Inst. of Space Phys., Oct. 1992.
  • Lundin, R., et al., The Freja project, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, No. 17, 1823-1826, doi:10.1029/94GL01424, Aug. 1994.

Other Sources of Freja Data/Information

Data from Freja Hot Plasma (F3H) experiment (Institute for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden)

Magnetic Field Experiment team page (APL/JHU)
Cold Plasma Analyzer page (U. Calgary)
Hot Plasma Experiment page (Institute for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden)
UV Imager page (U. Calgary)

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