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Hakuto-R M1



Hakuto-R Mission1 (Hakuto-R M1) is a Japanese lunar landing mission. It is primarily a technology demonstration lander. It is built by ispace, inc., and will carry commercial and government payloads, including two lunar rovers (Rashid and the Japanese Lunar Excursion Vehicle). The mission launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on 11 December at 07:38:13 UT along with the Lunar Flashlight mission. It was put into a lunar transfer trajectory 40 minutes after launch and was deployed from the booster 7 minutes later. Communications were established with Hakuto, all systems are reported in nominal state. The orbit involved a wide loop away from the Earth and Moon followed by a return to lunar orbit. Lunar orbit insertion was achieved on 21 March. A 100-km circular orbit was achieved on 13 April. Landing was scheduled for 25 April 2023 at approximately 16:40 UT (12:40 p.m. EDT; 26 April at 1:40 a.m. JST) at 47.5 N, 44.4 E in Atlas crater in the Mare Frigoris region on the Moon's near side. However, no communication was received after the planned landing time and the spacecraft was presumed lost. Indications are that the spacecraft ran out of fuel while still a few kilometers in altitude and went into free fall, impacting the surface at a velocity that was not survivable. The impact site, comprising what looks to be multiple parts of the spacecraft, is at 47.581 N, 44.094 E.

The ispace Series 1 Lunar Lander stands about 2.3 meters tall on four landing legs with a total footprint 2.6 x 2.6 meters. The dry mass is 340 kg, fully fueled mass with payloads is roughly 1000 kg. The main body is an octagonal prism, 1.64 meters high and about 1.6 meters across its widest diameter. It has one main landing thruster and six assist thrusters. 350 W peak power is provided by body-mounted solar panels charging a Li-ion battery. Communications (uplink and downlink) are via X-band. It is capable of carrying 30 kg of payload to the lunar surface in protected compartments.

Rashid is a United Arab Emirates (UAE) lunar rover. It has a mass of approximately 10 kg. It is planned to operate for one lunar sunrise to sunset (about 14 Earth days) and will be used to study properties of lunar soil, the geology of the Moon, dust movement, and the surface plasma environment. The Japanese Lunar Excursion Vehicle, or Transformable Lunar Robot, is a small 8 cm diameter sphere with a mass of about 0.25 kg that will open into a cylindrical shape, basically an axle with two hemispherical wheels, and carry cameras for surface observations.

Alternate Names

  • 54696
  • Hakuto-R Mission1
  • HakutoRM1

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 2022-12-11
Launch Vehicle: Falcon 9 Full Thrust
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, United States


  • Planetary Science

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Dr. David R. Williams



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