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Chandrayaan 2



Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission comprising an orbiter and a soft lander carrying a rover, scheduled to launch to the Moon in July 2019. The primary objective of Chandrayaan-2 is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Scientific goals include studies of lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Chandrayaan 2 orbiter is a box-shaped craft with an orbital mass of 2379 kg and solar arrays capable of generating 1000 W power. The orbiter communicates with the Indian Deep Space Network and the lander. The orbiter will have a scientific payload comprising a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a near infrared spectrometer, a radio occultation experiment, a soft X-ray spectrometer and solar X-ray monitor.

The lander, named Vikram, has a mass of 1471 kg (including the rover), and can generate 650 W of solar power. The lander can communicate directly to the Indian Deep Space Network, the orbiter, and the rover. The lander will carry a camera, seismometer, thermal profiler, Langmuir probe, and a NASA-supplied laser retroreflector.

The rover, Pragyan (also Pragyaan), is a 6-wheeled vehicle with a mass of 27 kg that runs on 50 W of solar power and can travel up to 500 m at a speed of 1 cm per second. The rover communicates directly with the lander. the rover will hold cameras, alpha-proton X-ray spectrometer, and a laser-induced ablation spectroscopy experiment.

Mission Profile

Chandrayaan 2 is launched on 22 July 2019 at 9:13 UT (2:43 p.m. Indian Standard Time) from Satish Dhawan Space Center on Sriharikota Island on an ISRO Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark III. The lander-orbiter pair will go into an initial elliptical (170 x 40400 km altitude) Earth parking orbit, followed by a trans-lunar injection. The pair go into an initial elliptical lunar orbit on 5 or 6 August. After orbit insertion, the lander and orbiter separate. The orbiter evolves into a 100 km altitude circular polar orbit and the lander brakes from orbit and lands on the surface in the high latitude areas near the south pole, planned for 6 or 7 September. The orbiter portion of the mission is planned to last 1 year. The rover will be deployed using a ramp shortly after landing. The lander and rover portions of the mission are planned for 14-15 days, one period of lunar daylight.

Spacecraft image credit ISRO

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 2019-07-22
Launch Vehicle: GSLV-MkIII
Launch Site: Sriharikota, India
Mass: 3850 kg
Nominal Power: 1000 W

Funding Agency

  • Indian Space Research Organization (India)


  • Planetary Science

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Dr. David R. Williams



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