NASA Logo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive Header

Peregrine Mission 1 (TO2-AB)



Peregrine Mission 1 (TO2-AB), or the Peregrine Lunar Lander, carrying scientific and other payloads to the Moon, is tentatively scheduled to touch down on the lunar surface sometime in the first quarter of 2023. This first launch of the lander is designated Peregrine Mission 1. The scientific objectives of the mission are to study the lunar exosphere, thermal properties and hydrogen abundance of the lunr regolith, magnetic fields, and the rdiation environment. It will also test advanced solar arrays. Peregrine Mission 1 was selected through NASA's Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative, in which NASA contracts with a commercial partner, in this case Astrobotic, that provides the launch and lander.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

Peregrine Mission 1 is about 1.9 m high and roughly 2.5 m across. It is a box-shaped main body sitting on 4 landing legs. The main structural landing bus is composed of aluminum isogrid shear panels and aluminum honeycomb mounting surfaces. Propulsion is provided by five ISE-100 667-N thrusters mounted on the bottom of the lander. They use a hypergolic system of Mono-Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) fuel and dinitrogen tetroxide/nitrogen dioxide, 25% Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-25) oxidizer. Four sets of three 45-N attitude control thrusters maintain orientation. Attitude knowledge is provided by Sun and star trackers, inertial measurement, and Doppler radio and LIDAR. Power (at 28 V) is generated by GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells mounted on the top of the lander and stored in lithium-ion batteries. Communications are via a medium gain, low-gain, and WLAN antenna. Thermal control is achieved by radiators and multi-layer insulation blankets.

The mission will carry 14 payloads of various types, the lander has a payload mass capacity of 90 kg. The scientific payload includes the Laser Retro-Reflector Array (LRA), Navigation Doppler Lidar for Precise Velocity and Range Sensing (NDL), Surface Exosphere Alterations by Landers (SEAL),Photovoltaic Investigation on Lunar Surface (PILS), Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometer (LETS), Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS), Mass Spectrometer Observing Lunar Operations (MSolo), PROSPECT Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometer (PITMS), Neutron Measurements at the Lunar Surface (NMLS), and Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG).

Mission Profile

Launch is currently scheduled for the first quarter of 2023 from Cape Canaveral, Florida on a United Launch Alliance Vulcan Centaur rocket in the VC2S configuration, with 2 GEM-63XL solid boosters, a standard short faring, and two RL10 engines in the Centaur upper stage. It will land on the Moon on a lava flow adjacent to the Gruitheisen Domes on the northeast border of Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms)

For more on NASA's CLPS program and missions, see:

Image credit: Astrobotic Technology

Alternate Names

  • Peregrine Lunar Lander 1
  • PeregrineMission1
  • TO2-AB

Facts in Brief

Launch Date: 
Launch Vehicle: VC2S
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, United States

Funding Agency

  • Unknown (United States)


  • Planetary Science

Additional Information

Questions and comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Dr. David R. Williams



NameRoleOriginal AffiliationE-mail
Dr. Sharad BhaskaranMission
Dr. Paul NilesProject ScientistNASA Johnson Space
[] NASA Logo -