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Chandrayaan 2



Chandrayaan-2 is an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission comprising an orbiter and a soft lander carrying a rover, scheduled to launch to the Moon in April, 2018. The primary objective of Chandrayaan-2 is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Scientific goals include studies of lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.

Spacecraft and subsystems

The orbiter is a box-shaped craft with an orbital mass of 1400 kg. The lander has a mass of 1250 kg, including the 20 kg rover. The rover is a 6-wheeled vehicle using solar power.

The orbiter will have a scientific payload comprising a visible camera, a mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a near infrared spectrometer, a radio occultation experiment, an X-ray spectrometer and solar monitor. The lander will carry a camera, seismometer, thermal profiler, and Langmuir probe, while the rover will hold cameras, alpha-proton X-ray spectrometer, and a laser-induced ablation spectroscopy experiment.

Mission Profile

Chandrayaan 2 is scheduled to launch in early October 2018 from Satish Dhawan Space Center on Sriharikota Island on an ISRO Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark II. The lander-orbiter pair will go into an initial elliptical (180 x 24000 km altitude) Earth orbit, followed by a trans-lunar injection. Both craft go into an initial elliptical lunar orbit. After orbit insertion, the lander and orbiter separate. The orbiter evolves into a 100 km circular orbit and the lander brakes from orbit and lands on the surface in the high latitude areas near the south pole. The orbiter portion of the mission is planned to last 1 year. The rover will be deployed using a ramp shortly after landing and is planned for 14-15 days, basically one period of lunar daylight.

Spacecraft image credit ISRO

Facts in Brief

Launch Vehicle: GSLV
Launch Site: Sriharikota, India
Mass: 2650.0 kg

Funding Agency

  • Indian Space Research Organization (India)


  • Planetary Science

Additional Information

Questions or comments about this spacecraft can be directed to: Dr. David R. Williams.

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