Most values listed in the factsheets are from the following sources: IAU/IAG Working Group Report, 2006, 2015 Astronomical Almanac, 2000, 2001, 2020 Global Earth Physics, American Geophysical Union, 1995 Astrophysical Quantities, C.W. Allen, 1981, 2000 JPL Ephemeris DE430/DE431 IAU bulletins/announcements Recent journal articles and personal communications Note that the values listed on the factsheets are not "official" values, there is no single set of agreed upon values. They are based on ongoing research and as such are under study and subject to change at any time. Every effort has been made to present the most up-to-date information, but care should be exercised when using these values.

Mass (10^{24}kg) Mass of the body in 10^24 kilograms [GM(measured)/G(CODATA 2018 - see below)] Volume (10^{10}km^{3}) Volume of the body in 10^10 km^3 Equatorial radius (km) Radius of the body at the equator in kilometers Polar radius (km) Radius of the body at the poles in kilometers Volumetric mean radius (km) Radius of a sphere with the same volume as the body Core radius (km) Radius of the planet core in kilometers Ellipticity (Flattening) The ratio (equatorial - polar radius)/(equatorial radius), dimensionless Mean density (kg/m^{3}) Average density of the body (mass/volume) in kilograms/meter^3 Surface gravity (mean) (m/s^{2}) Mean gravitational acceleration at the surface of the body or the 1 bar level, not including the effects of rotation, defined as GM over the square of the volumetric mean radius, in meters/second^2 Surface acceleration (eq.) (m/s^{2}) Effective equatorial gravitational acceleration at the surface of the body or the 1 bar level, including the effects of rotation, in meters/second^2 Surface acceleration (pole) (m/s^{2}) Effective polar gravitational acceleration at the surface of the body or the 1 bar level, in meters/second^2 Escape velocity (km/s) Initial velocity required to escape the body's gravitational pull in kilometers/second (at equator) GM (x 10^{6}km^{3}/s^{2}) Gravitational constant times the mass of the body in 10^6 kilometers^3/seconds^2 Geometric albedo The ratio of the body's brightness at a phase angle of zero to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing disk with the same position and apparent size, dimensionless. V-band (0.549 micrometers). Earth is highly variable. Bond albedo The fraction of incident solar radiation reflected back into space without absorption, dimensionless. Also called planetary albedo. V-band magnitude V(1,0) The magnitude of the body in the V-band (0.549 micrometers) if it were one AU (1.496 x 10^8 kilometers) from the Earth at a phase angle of zero, dimensionless. Solar irradiance (W/m^{2}) Solar energy on the body in Watts/(meter^2) Black-body temperature (K) Equivalent black body temperature is the surface temperature the body would have if it were in radiative equilibrium and had no atmosphere, but the same albedo, in Kelvin. Topographic range (km) Difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points on the planet's surface, in kilometers. Moment of inertia (C/MR^{2}) The moment of inertia of the body expressed as the rotational inertia divided by the body's mass x radius^2, where radius^2 = {2(R_{equator}^2) + R_{polar}^2}/3. A hollow spherical shell has a moment of inertia of 2/3, a homogeneous sphere 0.4, dimensionless J_{2}(x 10^{-6}) The ratio of the difference in the moments of inertia (rotational vs polar) to the mass of the body times the radius^2,(C-A)/(M R^2), x 10^-6, dimensionless Number of natural satellites The number of moons orbiting the planet, as certified by the IAU Absolute magnitude (Comets) The magnitude of the comet at 1 AU for Y = 10, where Y is the photometric parameter giving the observed dependence of the magnitude on heliocentric distance, also designated H(10).

Instantaneous values (semimajor axis, eccentricity, perihelion, aphelion, inclination) for planets referenced to Julian Date 2459000.5 (11 June 2020). [Updated from Julian Date 2451800.5 (13 September 2000) on 22 Dec 2021] Semimajor axis (10^{6}km) Approximate mean distance from the Sun (or other central body in the case of satellites) from center to center in 10^6 kilometers. Sidereal orbit period (days) The time it takes the body to make one revolution about the Sun relative to the fixed stars in days. For Pluto, it is the time from the last zero longitude crossing to the next (24 July 1820 - 2 July 2068). Tropical orbit period (days) The average time for the body to make one revolution about the Sun from one point in its seasonal orbit to the equivalent point (e.g. equinox to equinox) in days. For Earth, this equals exactly 1 year. Not known for Pluto. Synodic period (days) The time interval between similar configurations in the orbit (e.g. opposition) of the body and Earth, in days. Perihelion (10^{6}km) The point in a body's orbit closest to the Sun, in 10^6 kilometers. Aphelion (10^{6}km) The point in a body's orbit furthest from the Sun, in 10^6 kilometers. Mean orbital velocity (km/s) The average speed of the body in elliptical orbit, in kilometers/second. Max. orbital velocity (km/s) Maximum orbital velocity, at perihelion, in kilometers/second. Min. orbital velocity (km/s) Minimum orbital velocity, at aphelion, in kilometers/second. Orbit inclination (deg) The inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic, in degrees. For satellites, this is with respect to the planet's equator. Orbit eccentricity A measure of the circularity of the orbit, equal to (aphelion - perihelion distance)/(2 x semi-major axis). For the Galilean satellites, the forced eccentricity is given. For a circular orbit eccentricity = 0. Dimensionless. Sidereal rotation period (hrs) The time for one rotation of the body on its axis relative to the fixed stars, in hours. A minus sign indicates retrograde rotation. Length of day (hrs) The average time in hours for the Sun to move from the noon position in the sky at a point on the equator back to the same position, on Earth this defines a 24 hour day. Obliquity to orbit (deg) The angle between the body's equator and the body's orbital plane, with north defined by the right-hand rule. (J2000) Inclination of equator (deg) The angle between the equator and orbital plane with north defined as pole axis above (north of) the plane of the solar system, also denoted as axial tilt. (J2000)

Approximate values for the minimum and maximum distances of the planets from Earth. Orbits fluctuate over time, these values are calculated from the mean orbital elements for J2000 250 year fits and the current orbits referenced to Julian Date 2459000.5 (11 June 2020). The planetary diameter used is two times the volumetric mean radius. For Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, diameter is approximately to the visible cloud tops.

250-year least squares fit elements referenced to J2000 (Global Earth Physics, p. 14) Longitude The point in a body's orbit around the Sun, defined from 0 to 360 degrees. The 0 point of longitude is defined as the first point of Aries. This is the position of the Sun as seen from Earth at Earth's vernal equinox, so at the vernal equinox the Earth is at a longitude of 180 degrees. Longitude of ascending node (deg) The longitude in a body's orbit at which it crosses the ecliptic plane with increasing latitude (i.e. crosses the ecliptic from south to north). Longitude of perihelion (deg) The longitude in a body's orbit at which it reaches the point closest to the Sun. Mean longitude (deg) The longitude a body was at in its orbit at 12:00 Universal (Greenwich) Time on January 1, 2000, also known as J2000 or Julian Day 2451545.0

Dipole field strength: The strength of the dipole portion of the planetary magnetic field outside the planet in Gauss-R^3, where R is in units of planet radius. (Dividing by the distance R^3 gives the field in Gauss) Dipole tilt to rotational axis: Tilt of the dipole axis to the axis of rotation in degrees. Dipole Offset: The offset distance of the dipole center to the planet center in units of planet radius. Surface field strength: Range of total field strength at planet radius in Gauss.

Surface Pressure: Atmospheric pressure at the surface, in bars, millibars (mb = 10^-3 bar), or picobars (10^-12 bar). Surface Density: Atmospheric density at the surface in kilograms/meters^3. Scale height: The height interval in which the atmospheric pressure changes by a factor of e = 2.7183 Average temperature: Mean temperature of the body over the entire surface in Kelvin. Diurnal temperature range: Temperature range over an average day in Kelvin. Wind speeds: Near surface wind speeds in meters/second Atmospheric composition: Relative composition by volume of gasses in the atmosphere. Mean molecular weight: Mean relative molecular mass of the atmospheric constituents in dalton (= unified atomic mass units), equivalent to grams/mole Atmospheric composition (by volume): Relative volume of constituents in the atmosphere, by percentage or ppm (parts per million).

Astronomical Unit (AU) - The standard distance from the Sun to the Earth = 149,597,870.7 km. Bar - A measure of pressure or stress. 1 bar = 10^5 Pascal (Pa) = 10^5 kg m^-1 s^-2 Ecliptic - An imaginary plane defined by the Earth's orbit. Equinox - The point in a body's orbit when the sub-solar point is exactly on the equator. Gravitational Constant (G) - Relates gravitational force to mass, = 6.67430 x 10^-11 meters^3 kilograms^-1 seconds^-2 (CODATA 2018) Julian Day (JD) - The amount of time that has passed, measured in days on the Julian calendar, since noon UT on 1 January 4713 B.C. 1200 UT on 1 January 2000 A.D. is JD 2451545, also referred to as J2000. Opposition - An orbital configuration in which two bodies are on exact opposite sides of the Sun or are on the same side of the Sun forming a line with the Sun (neglecting inclination) Phase Angle - The angle between the Earth and Sun as seen from the body.

Directory to the Planetary Fact Sheets

Author/Curator:

Dr. David R. Williams, dave.williams@nasa.gov

NSSDCA, Mail Code 690.1

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Greenbelt, MD 20771

+1-301-286-1258

Last Updated: 23 May 2023, DRW