Galileo's first flyby of Callisto, Jupiter's second largest satellite and the third largest satellite in the solar system, occurred on 04 November 1996. At 13:34 UTC, Galileo came about 1098 km (within about 6 km of the target 1104 km) from the surface of Callisto. As measured to the center of Callisto, more than 100 times closer than Voyager 1 in 1979 and almost 200 times closer than Voyager 2 did later that same year. During this time, observations were also made of the Jovian magnetosphere as well as of the other satellites of Jupiter.
During the Callisto flyby, enhancements in NASA's Deep Space Network were implemented to permit a higher data return rate from Galileo which, coupled with other improvements, raised it from a mere 10 bps to close to 1,000 bps. This change should permit the project to accomplish 70% of the original science goals at Jupiter.
The following timeline is a list of different events which will occur beginning with the official start of the Callisto 3 (the number actually refers to the Galileo orbit number) encounter and proceding until the last data from the encounter are played back. The times are given in Universal Time (UTC) of the event at the spacecraft.
Date/Time Instrument Event ________ __________ _____ 02 Nov 16:00 Start of Callisto 3 encounter 03 Nov 02:14 UVS First Jovian aurora observation 19:44 SSI Callisto Asgard Basin observation 04 Nov 03:30 RS Callisto gravity field measurement 13:11 F&P Callisto wake crossing recording 13:30 Callisto closest approach (3,510 km) 13:35 SSI Callisto Valhalla observation 14:18 PPR Callisto dark map observation 19:43 UVS Last Callisto 3 Io torus observation 05 Nov 02:14 NIMS First white oval observation 07:05 F&P Jovian aurora recording 06 Nov 04:00 NIMS First Io monitoring observation 06:07 SSI Io topographical map 11:49 NIMS High spatial and spectral Io observations 12:05 Io closest approach (244,000 km) 13:27 Jupiter closest approach (658,000 km) 18:43 Europa closest approach (34,000 km) 20:27 PPR Europa dark map observation 20:41 NIMS Europa limb occultation observation 23:21 NIMS Last Io monitoring observation 07 Nov 02:50 Science turn (high-phase Jupiter) 04:49 Ganymede closest approach (1,050,000 km) 17:40 NIMS Last white oval observation 20:30 Turn to return to Earth point 08 Nov 10:36 Start Earth occultation by Jupiter 17:15 End Earth occultation by Jupiter 23:00 Science turn (Solar occultation) 09 Nov 02:18 Start solar occultation by Jupiter 02:35 UVS First solar occultation observation 05:18 SSI Last Jovian aurora observation 10:00 Turn to return to Earth point 10:15 End solar occultation by Jupiter 13:10 UVS Last solar occultation observation 10 Nov 07:00 Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 14 11 Nov 02:00 Start of data playback (Callisto 3) 20:00 F&P End first magnetosphere mini-tour 20:00 Turn for attitude maintenance 27 Nov 19:43 Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 15 02 Dec 09:01 First Europa OPNAV (for Europa 4) 10 Dec 13:59 EUV/UVS First Io torus observation (Europa 4) 13 Dec 21:00 F&P Start Europa 4 real-time survey 17:21 Last Europa OPNAV (for Europa 4) 15 Dec 00:00 End of data playback (Callisto 3)
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