Galileo's second flyby of Callisto (also known as the Callisto 9 flyby because it took place during Galileo's ninth orbit around Jupiter), the second largest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, occurred on 25 June 1997 at 13:47 UTC. At that time, Galileo came about 416 km from the surface of Callisto (or less than 1.2 Callisto radii from its center). This is the closest that Galileo came to Callisto during its prime mission and is less than half the distance to Callisto's surface than the first flyby which occurred on the third orbit in November 1996. During this time, observations were also be made of the Jovian magnetosphere as well as of the other satellites of Jupiter. Especially noteworthy during this particular orbit were images of Jupiter's satellites Thebe (roughly 50 km in size) and Adrastea (about 10 km) as well as more images of Metis (about 20 km).
The following timeline is a list of different events which will occur beginning with the official start of the Callisto 9 (the number actually refers to the Galileo orbit number) encounter and proceding until the last data from the encounter are played back. The times are given in Universal Time (UTC) of the event at the spacecraft.
Date/Time Instrument Event ________ __________ _____ 22 Jun 16:00 Start of Callisto 9 encounter 23 Jun 06:18 Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 29 25 Jun 06:04 Science Turn (Callisto encounter) 11:42 PPR Callisto dark map 13:26 F&P Callisto closest approach recording 13:39 Start Earth occultation by Callisto 13:40 Start Sun occultation by Callisto 13:47 Callisto closest approach (2,820 km) 13:56 End Earth occultation by Callisto 13:58 End Sun occultation by Callisto 14:26 NIMS/UVS Callisto Skuld crater observation 15:11 SSI Callisto Valhalla region observation 19:04 Turn to return to Earth point 26 Jun 01:26 SSI First Great Red Spot observation 05:57 SSI First plume head observation 06:27 UVS First Jupiter aurora observation 06:56 SSI Thebe imaging 13:11 SSI Adrastea imaging 17:19 Ganymede closest approach (82,600 km) 17:46 SSI Ganymede Perrine/Galileo Regio 18:38 PPR Ganymede polarimetry 21:53 NIMS Ganymede global mosaic 23:35 SSI Amalthea imaging 27 Jun 10:09 Europa closest approach (1,200,000 km) 10:33 NIMS First Io monitoring observation 11:25 SSI Metis imaging 11:52 Jupiter closest approach (770,000 km) 28 Jun 02:31 Io closest approach (607,000 km) 13:50 F&P Jupiter aurora recording 14:01 UVS Last Jupiter aurora observation 15:59 NIMS Last Great Red Spot observation 20:27 NIMS Last Io monitoring observation 21:12 NIMS Last plume head observation 29 Jun 16:00 Start of data playback (Callisto 9) 10 Jul 18:00 Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 30 14 Jul 07:27 Science turn (instrument calibration) 12:41 Turn to return to Earth point 23 Jul 14:19 F&P Dusk magnetotail observation (130 RJ) 29 Jul 11:54 Start Sun occultation by Jupiter 30 Jul 18:40 End Sun occultation by Jupiter 01 Aug 10:26 Start Earth occultation by Jupiter 02 Aug 11:42 End Earth occultation by Jupiter 07 Aug 11:06 F&P First apojove magnetotail observation 13:36 F&P Second apojove magnetotail observation 08 Aug 17:45 Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 31 09 Aug 16:00 Turn for attitude maintenance 23 Aug 14:07 F&P Dawn magnetotail observation (130 RJ) 03 Sep 02:45 Science turn (high-phase Jupiter) 05:56 SSI Jupiter high solar phase observation 06:31 Turn to return to Earth point 10 Sep 05:13 First Callisto 10 approach OPNAV 11:25 Science turn (high-phase Jupiter) 14:26 SSI Jupiter high solar phase observation 15:01 Turn to return to Earth point 12 Sep 20:45 Last Callisto 10 approach OPNAV 14 Sep 00:00 End of data playback (Callisto 9)
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