The Gemini Program (1962 - 1966)

The Gemini program consisted of a total of 19 launches, 2 initial uncrewed test missions, 7 target vehicles, and 10 crewed missions, each of which carried two astronauts to Earth orbit. Designed as a bridge between the Mercury and Apollo programs, the Gemini program primarily tested equipment and mission procedures and trained astronauts and ground crews for future Apollo missions. The general objectives of the program included: long duration flights; testing the ability to maneuver a spacecraft and to achieve rendezvous and docking of two vehicles in Earth orbit; training of both flight and ground crews; conducting experiments in space; extravehicular operations (standup sessions and spacewalks); active control of reentry to achieve a precise landing; and onboard orbital navigation. The Gemini missions lasted for periods ranging from 5 hours to 14 days.

Gemini Missions

Gemini 1

Launched 8 April 1964
Uncrewed Orbital
Reentered 12 April 1964

Gemini 2

Launched 19 January 1965
Uncrewed Suborbital
Splashdown 19 January 1965

Gemini 3

Launched 23 March 1965
Gus Grissom and John Young
Splashdown 23 March 1965

Gemini 4

Launched 3 June 1965
James McDivitt and Ed White
Splashdown 7 June 1965

Gemini 5

Launched 21 August 1965
Gordon Cooper and Pete Conrad
Splashdown 29 August 1965

Gemini 6A

Launched 15 December 1965
Walter Schirra and Tom Stafford
Splashdown 16 December 1965

Gemini 7

Launched 4 December 1965
Frank Borman and Jim Lovell
Splashdown 18 December 1965

Gemini 8

Launched 16 March 1966
Neil Armstrong and David Scott
Splashdown 16 March 1966

Gemini 9A

Launched 3 June 1966
Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan
Splashdown 6 June 1966

Gemini 10

Launched 18 July 1966
John Young and Michael Collins
Splashdown 21 July 1966

Gemini 11

Launched 12 September 1966
Pete Conrad and Richard Gordon
Splashdown 15 September 1966

Gemini 12

Launched 11 November 1966
Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin
Splashdown 15 November 1966

 Chronology of U.S. Astronaut Missions - Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo
 The First U.S. Spacewalk - Ed White's Gemini 4 EVA
 Images of Earth - from Gemini and other spacecraft
 More Project Gemini Information - Kennedy Space Center
 Project Gemini History - Kennedy Space Center
 Gemini Pictures - Johnson Space Center

Gemini Books Online

 On The Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini - NASA History Office
 Project Gemini Technology and Operations - A Chronology - NASA History Office

 Earth Home Page
 Planetary Science Home Page

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Dr. David R. Williams,
NSSDCA, Mail Code 690.1
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771

NASA Official: Ed Grayzeck,
Last Updated: 30 December 2004, DRW