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This description was generated automatically using input from the Planetary Data System.

Data Set Overview

The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements (LEMMS) sensor uses two oppositely directed telescopes to measure ions and electrons in the energy range 0.03 to 18 MeV for ions and 0.015 to 0.884 MeV for electrons. LEMMS measures electrons in two ways: the first method of detection uses magnets to bend low-energy electrons into detectors and the second uses a stack of detectors capable of separating electrons by energy discrimination. The low energy end of LEMMS (LET) has 15 degree aperature and is designed to measure ions with E >= 30 keV and electrons in the range 15 keV - 1 MeV. The high energy end of LEMMS (HET) consists of a stack of five detectors D1, D2, D3a, D3b and D4 to measure high-energy ions (1.5 - 150 MeV/N) and electrons (0.1 - 5MeV). The opening angle of the HET is 30 degrees. The LEMMS detector assembly is mounted onto a turntable capable of continous rotation. When the spacecraft itself is also rotating, the platform allows LEMMS to detect particles covering essentially the entire unit sphere. The turntable rotation can be either clockwise or counter clockwise but in practice after the arrival at Saturn, the rotation is always clockwise. One LEMMS turntable rotation is divided into 16 divisions called subsector. Subsectors are divided into 16 microsectors, but the priority data are taken every other microsector, so in practice there are a maximum of 8 priority data values taken within a subsector. The turntable became stuck in early 2005, after which it has been in a fixed position. Launch (1997) - 2000:154 - turntable was rotating, orientation was not well known 2000:154 - 2005:032 - turntable was rotating, orientation was well known. 2005:032 - 2005:109 - sporadic rotation with intermittent sticking. 2005:032 and beyond - turntable stopped rotating All the orientation data for LEMMS after 2000:154 including the stuck period has been captured in SPICE C-kernels, which are included in the MIMI analysis kernel set available on the MIMI web site. This LEMMS data set is provided in a calibrated form in conjunction with a PDS MIMI calibration volume COMIMI_0000 which provides specific algorithms for the derivation of calibrated data. Calibration of LEMMS data is described in the section on LEMMS in the MIMI User Guide [VANDEGRIFFETAL2012]. Parameters ========== Each standard product ID in the dataset is described as follows: LPHASPGM0 Particle intensity plots in energy-time spectrograms for the high energy resolution PHA channels. LPHAAVG0_1MIN One minute average particle intensity data for PHA ion and electron channels in daily files. LPHAAVG0_1HR One hour average particle intensity data for PHA ion and electron channels in daily files. LACCAVG0_1MIN One minute average particle intensity data for accumulator rate ion and electron channels in daily files. LACCAVG0_1HR One minute average particle intensity data for accumulator rate ion and electron channels in daily files. LCPRESS0 Daily plots of particle pressure for LEMMS with CHEMS pressures for comparison. Also, a spectrogram of LEMMS data from the accumulator rates provides intensity information up to 60 MeV. Processing ========== Data in this data set were processed by the use of a number of software programs which calibrate, perform the 1 minute and 1 hour averages on the data, and create the spectrograms and particle pressure plots. For many LEMMS channels, it is possible to do a background subtraction. Background levels are variable over time, and the MIMI calibration file contains background levels for many LEMMS channels obtained as a function of time throughout the mission. Background levels are recorded as counts per second, and should be subtracted from the raw count rate before that rate is converted to intensity. Background subtraction has been applied to the LEMMS calibrated data in this data set. Converting uncalibrated counts into a background subtracted differential intensity in units of counts/(sec ster cm^2 keV) is done in the following way. Counts are divided by the accumulation time, and then background is subtracted. Then the intensity is computed from the rate with this formula: intensity = (bg. subtracted rate) / (dt * gf * eff * dE) Where dt = accumulation time in seconds gf = geometry factor in steradians eff = efficiency dE = energy width in keV The procedures for calibrating LEMMS data are described in the section on LEMMS in the MIMI User Guide [VANDEGRIFFETAL2012]. To calculate the particle pressure over a given number of energy channels is: P = 4 * pi * SQRT((1.673E-24 * 0.0000000016) / 2) * SUM{Ji * SQRT(Ei) * BWi} Where Ji = differential flux for the ith energy channel [1/(cm^2-s-sr-keV)] Ei = nominal energy for the ith energy channel (in keV) BWi = bandwidth for the ith energy channel (in keV) and SUM means the sum of all the energy channels specified for that sensor. Data ==== The LEMMS calibrated data set includes the LEMMS normal rate channel and PHA ion and electron particle spectrograms and PHA ion particle pressures plots as well as the 1 minute and 60 minute averaged particle intensities. LEMMS PHA and Accumulator Rates Averages - 1 Hour and 1 minute --------------------------------------The 1 hour and 1 minute files are very similar except for the averaging interval. In each file, the data columns contain 1 hour or 1 minute averages of LEMMS accumulator rates data. The data are averaged by first defining fixed one hour intervals throughout the day and then averaging any data points that fall in the intervals. If an interval contains no data, it is still listed in the file, but all data intensity values will be fill. The fill value for data in this file is -1.0E38. These data are background subtracted, and thus occasionally there will be negative values when the count rate falls below the background level. Also, the uncertainties are based on the counting statistics, and thus because of the background subtraction, the uncertainties can be larger than the data value. In the accumulator rates data, there are four types of channels included in these averages. The channels A0 through A8 are measured by the low energy end of LEMMS (the Low Energy Telescope, or LET), and for protons these channels have an energy range of 27 to 4000 keV. The P1 through P9 channels are measured by the LEMMS High Energy Telescope (HET) and have an energy range of 1 to 60 MeV. Channels C0 through C7 measure electrons, and have an energy of 20 to 900 keV. The E0 through E4 channels are also electrons covering the 150 to 3000 keV range. The MIMI instrument paper describes these channels, as does the MIMI Data User Guide. In the PHA data, there are three types of channels included in these averages: the A channels, the E channels and the F1 channels. The A channels measure ions, mostly protons. The E and F1 channels measure electrons. The MIMI instrument paper describes these channels, as does the MIMI Data User Guide. It is important to note that a subset of the PHA channels are typically used for science analysis, and only these channels are provided in calibrated PDS data. For the A channels, channel indices 8 through 62 are present (energies of 26-758 keV). For the E channels, indices 15 to 62 (20-410 keV), and for F1, 26 through 59 (206-1717 keV). For all PHA sensor elements (A, E, and F1), the highest energy channel (index 63, with 0 being the first channel) contains all the counts that did not fit into any other channel, and so it is often very noisy. Some of the lowest energy A and E channels are also not used because the detection efficiency drops off rapidly as energy decreases, and also the efficiency is less well characterized at those lower energies. Thus the counts in these low energy A and E channels are very uncertain. For PHA electrons, high energy E channels overlap in energy with low energy F1 channels. Efficiencies in the transition energies between E and F1 are difficult to characterize, since they depend on spectral shape and incident angle. Thus the constant values used for these efficiencies (in the energy overlap region) are only an approximation. The choice of typical channels for E and F1 was made to provide some overlap in energy but still provide good agreement in intensities in most situations. The file header and leading columns of the file are present to make the format consistent with other MIMI data in the PDS. Note that much of the values for the leading columns are -1, indicating that they do not have useful values, but their presence allows this file to be parsed by the same code that reads other MIMI PDS data. The first column is always the string 'sci', the next column is a UTC string, and then these prefix columns have no data in them but are just there to preserve the format: UTC, SCLOCK, Start_Ephemeris_s End_Ephemeris_s, Spin_Counter, Sector, Start_Sector_Sclock_major Subsector, Microsectors_Covered, Spin_Period_s Staring Sensor_Bitrate Just before the data columns are three columns giving the position of the Cassini spacecraft relavtive to Saturn in the SZS frame. The position is given for the middle of the time interval. The units are Saturn radii (60268 km) and the SZS frame is defined as: +Z is Saturn spin axis, +Y is +Z cross the Saturn-Sun line, and +X is +Y cross +Z. LEMMS PHA Spectrograms --------------------------------------This data set consists of daily energy-time spectrograms for the LEMMS PHA electron data (top panel) and LEMMS PHA ion data (second panel). The ions are almost always protons, and these come from channels 8 through 62 in the LEMMS PHA data. For protons, these channels have an energy range of 25 to 780 keV. The electrons (the lower of the two data panels) come from the LEMMS PHA E channels 15 through 62 and the LEMMS PHA F1 channels (26 through 59) and have energy ranges of 20 to 410 (for E channels) and 205 to 1700 keV (for F1 channels). Note that there is some overlap. Also note that in the data, it is usually possible to see the transition region from the lower energy E channels to the higher energy F1 channels. This is because the efficiencies adn geometric factors used work for most situations, but in some environments, the detectors have different responses and this causes a visible seam in the data. The thin plot between the two data panels is a status panel indicating when sunlight contamination may be present in the data. This status panel is color coded such that green indicates the data is likely free of sunlight problems. Red indicates a likely contamination problem. Black and gray both indicate that attitude data could not be obtained to make a determination. The Cassini MIMI Data User Guide discusses LEMMS light contamination in more detail. There is also a panel showing angles between the LEMMS Low Energy Telescope (LET) and various other vectors. The green line is the SZS longitude of the LET boresight. The black line is the latitude of the LET boresight in the SZS frame. The blue line is the Sun angle - the angle between the LET boresight and the Cassini-Sun line. This is the angle used to determine possible sunlight contamination. The X axis is labeled with the time of day and the local time (in SZS), and also the radial distance of Cassini to the center of Saturn. The bottom three panels show the position of Cassini relative to Saturn in the KSM frame. The first plot is a top view, with the Sun to the left. The blue trace is the projection of the bow shock into the X-Y plane, and the brown line is the magnetopause projection. The equation for the bow shock was obtained from Went, et al, 2011, A new semiempirical model of Saturn's bow shock based on propagated solar wind parameters, DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016349. The magnetopause used is from Kanani et al, 2009, A new form of Saturn's magnetopause using a dynamic pressure balance model, based on in situ multi-instrument Cassini measurements DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014262. In each of the trajectory plots, Saturn is in the middle, and the actual orbit of Titan is shown (centered on the time of the data, but extendeing several days before and after so that the whole orbit can be seen). The location of Titan at the middle of the day of the data plots is indicated with a small red circle. The trajectory of Cassini is shown in black, and the part of the trajectory covered by the data is shown with a thicker blue line. The position of Cassini at the start of the data plot is indicated by a red X. In the KSM YZ projection, the magnetopause and bow shock are shown projected into the plane containing the spacecraft. Note that if the spacecraft is far enough inside or outside, these boundaries may not appear. The KSM frame is defined as follows: KSM, +X points from Saturn to the Sun. +Y is the Saturn dipole axis crossed into the +X axis. (In practice, the spin axis of Saturn is used in place of the dipole axis.) The +Z axis is then +X cross +Y. LEMMS Particle Pressures --------------------------------------------These are daily plots of particle pressure spectrograms for LEMMS and CHEMS. It also shows total pressure for LEMMS and CHEMS, and for LEMMS, a comparable energy-time spectrogram. The location of the Cassini spacecraft is also shown. The top panel shows a spectrogram of CHEMS particle pressure. The source for this data are the 32 energy steps (3 to 230 keV) for the BR0 and BR3 summed channels of just Telescope 2. This telescope was chosen because it points most closely to the now-fixed look direction of LEMMS. The intensities are averaged into 5 minute bins before converting to pressure. The units are dyne/cm^2. Note that in the magnetosphere of Saturn, the CHEMS pressures can only be trusted outside of L values around 4. The next panel is particle pressure based on LEMMS PHA ions, presumed to be protons. Channels A08 through A62 are used and cover an energy range of 25 to 780 keV. These data are averaged into 120 second bins before calculating the pressure. The units are the same as for the CHEMS data in the top panel. Note that in the magnetosphere of Saturn, the LEMMS pressures can only be trusted outside of L values around 6. Inside this distance, background levels become significant and cause the reported pressure to be too high. There is essentially very little particle pressure in this region anyway. The next panel shows the total pressure, as computed by summing the LEMMS and CHEMS pressure spectrograms in the above panels. The units for the pressure are still the same. The next panel is a LEMMS energy-time spectrogram based on these LEMMS A and P channels: A0 through A7 and P2 through P8 excluding P4. These channels cover an energy range of 27 keV to 59 MeV and are averaged into 120 second bins. The units are particles/sec/cm^2/ster/keV. Directly below this LEMMS spectrogram is a thin panel showing times of potential light contamination for LEMMS. Red indicates times when the angle between the LET boresight and the Cassini-Sun vector is less than 60 degrees. Black and gray both indicate that attitude data could not be obtained to make a determination. The Cassini MIMI Data User Guide discusses LEMMS light contamination in more detail. The bottom three panels provide the Cassini position relative to Saturn as well as the magnetopause and bow shock. These panels are the same as those in the PHA Spectorgram plots and are described above. Coordinate System ================= The averaged data products in this dataset also include spacecraft position information in the Saturn Equatorial System frame (also called the SZS frame) in units of Saturn radii, Rs, where 1 Rs = 60268 km. The SZS frame has the following definition: +Z points along the dipole axis of Saturn. For practical purposes, the spin axis of the IAU_Saturn frame is used for this direction. +Y is in the direction of the cross product of +Z with the Saturhn-to-Sun line. +X is then +Y cross +Z. Software ======== There is access on the MIMI web site, to an analysis package currently being used by the MIMI team to browse, plot and analyze MIMI data that reads data directly from the PDS and makes available to anyone the same analysis and visualization capabilities currently used by the MIMI team. The main benifit of the tools is that they provide an intuitive way to browse and analyze the data without having to worry about calibration details or file access and file reading details.

These data are available on-line from the Planetary Data System (PDS) at:

Alternate Names



  • Planetary Science: Fields and Particles

Additional Information



Questions and comments about this data collection can be directed to: Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II



NameRoleOriginal AffiliationE-mail
Dr. Stamatios M. KrimigisData ProviderApplied Physics
Dr. Jon VandegriffGeneral ContactApplied Physics
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