What's Up With Galileo?

Third Europa flyby!

Galileo's third flyby of Europa (also known as the Europa 11 flyby because it took place during Galileo's eleventh orbit around Jupiter), the smallest of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, occured on 06 November 1997 at 20:32 UTC. At that time, Galileo came about 2,042 km from the surface of Europa (or about 1.9 Europan radii from its center). This was the furthest encounter that Galileo had to Europa during its prime mission and was more than 1,450 km farther from Europa's surface than the second (and closest) flyby which occurred on the sixth orbit in February 1997. During this orbit, observations were made of the Jovian magnetosphere near Europa, the Io plasma torus, and observations of Jovian lightning and aurorae. Also noteworthy during this particular orbit were images of Jupiter's satellites Thebe (roughly 50 km in size), Amalthea (about 130 km along its long axis), and observations of two volcanoes (Culann and Loki) on Io.

Each encounter is carefully planned to modify the orbit and set up the next satellite flyby. This was the last flyby to occur during the Galileo prime mission. The Galileo extended mission (called the Galileo Europa Mission) includes eight more close encounters with Europa, four more with Callisto, and up to two excursions into the Io plasma torus. The Galileo extended mission begins on 15 December 1997.

Galileo project images on NSSDCA Photo Gallery

Many of the images taken by Galileo of Jupiter and its satellites are available on NSSDCA's Photo Gallery. The pages are available via the Photo Gallery's Galileo image index or from the Photo Gallery's Jupiter page.

Europa 11 flyby timeline

The following timeline is a list of different events which will occur beginning with the official start of the Europa 11 (the number actually refers to the Galileo orbit number) encounter and proceding until the day of the primary mission. The times are given in Universal Time (UTC) of the event at the spacecraft.

Date/Time             Instrument    Event
________              __________    _____
02 Nov  16:00                       Start of Europa 11 encounter

03 Nov  06:06         UVS           Start Callisto neutral torus
        19:49         UVS           End Callisto neutral torus

04 Nov  12:23         UVS           Start Io torus observations
        23:35         UVS           End Io torus observations

05 Nov  06:52         UVS           Europa eclipse observations
        07:17                       Callisto closest approach (673,000 km)
        09:39         EUV/UVS       Auroral map
        16:13         NIMS          First brown barge observation
        16:22         UVS           Auroral haze observation
        18:36         SSI           Auroral time-lapse

06 Nov  00:18         NIMS          Europa global
        10:31         RS            Start Europa gravity field
        10:45         PPR           Jupiter global
        17:50         PPR           Europa hot spots
        18:48         NIMS          Europa Pwyll mosaic
        19:03         SSI           Europa color samples
        20:09         F&P           Start wake/equator observations
        20:32                       Europa closest approach (3,607 km)
        22:51         F&P           End wake/equator observations
        23:36         SSI           Thebe

07 Nov  00:42                       Jupiter closest approach (641,000 km)
        01:00         SSI           Amalthea
        06:31         RS            End Europa gravity field
        10:20                       Ganymede closest approach (1,540,000 km)
        10:49                       Science turn (high-phase Jupiter/Io)
        14:04         SSI           Culann plume
        21:11         NIMS          Io monitoring
        23:45                       Io closest approach (793,000 km)

08 Nov  00:09         SSI           Lightning search
        03:00         PPR           Io full disk
        05:37         UVS           Auroral map
        07:25         SSI           Loki plume
        14:56         SSI           Jupiter rings
        22:33                       Turn to return to Earth point

09 Nov  06:10         NIMS          Last brown barge observation
        16:00                       End of Europa 11 encounter/Start cruise

10 Nov  00:40                       Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 36

16 Nov  03:01         RS            Start Earth occultation observation
        05:00                       Start Earth occultation by Jupiter
        20:13                       End Earth occultation by Jupiter
        22:13         RS            End Earth occultation observation

21 Nov  15:38                       Attitude update burn

26 Nov  19:10                       Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 37

13 Dec  23:00                       Orbital Trim Maneuver (OTM) 38

15 Dec  08:00                       End cruise/Start Galileo Europa Mission

There are other Jupiter-related resources available at NSSDCA.

Further information on the Europa flyby can be found at:

Press Conferences
Times are Eastern Standard Time. Conferences can be seen on NASA Select. Conferences and other media events will be added as they become scheduled.

Date/Time             Event
________              _____
12/16/97 1:00 p.m.    Galileo briefing on results from primary mission

Overview of interesting events

Date/Time             Event
________              _____
12/07/95              Probe entry (timeline available)

03/14/96              Perijove raise maneuver

03/22/96              Final attempt to deploy high-gain antenna (failed)

06/27/96 02:29 a.m.   Ganymede closest approach #1 (EDT) (timeline available)

09/06/96 03:00 p.m.   Ganymede closest approach #2 (EDT) (timeline available)

11/04/96 08:30 a.m.   Callisto closest approach #1 (EST) (timeline available)

12/19/96 01:53 a.m.   Europa closest approach #1 (EST) (timeline available)

02/20/97 12:03 p.m.   Europa closest approach #2 (EST) (timeline available)

04/05/97 02:10 a.m.   Ganymede closest approach #3 (EST) (timeline available)

05/07/97 11:57 a.m.   Ganymede closest approach #4 (EDT) (timeline available)

06/25/97 09:47 a.m.   Callisto closest approach #2 (EDT) (timeline available)

09/16/97 08:19 p.m.   Callisto closest approach #3 (EDT) (timeline available)

11/26/97 03:32 p.m.   Europa closest approach #3 (EST) (timeline available)

Other Event Related News

| NSSDCA Galileo page | NSSDCA Planetary page |

Dr. Edwin V. Bell, II
Mail Code 690.1
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771

NASA Official: Dr. David R. Williams V2.0, 14 June 1996
Last Updated: Monday, 02-Mar-2015 13:38:44 EST, EVB II