Moon Apollo 11 landing site Lunokhod 1 site Apollo 15 SIVB impact site

Table of Anthropogenic Impacts and Spacecraft on the Moon


Green indicates spacecraft or crater imaged by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Red indicates location unknown with little or no supporting information.
White indicates location is approximately known, not yet imaged.


Spacecraft Landing Type Landing/Impact
Date
Latitude, Longitude
Latitude, Longitude
(N, E Positive)
Notes
Luna 2 Impact    14 September 1959       30 N, 0 E       30., 0.    a
Luna 2 booster
3rd stage
Impact    14 September 1959       Unknown       Unknown    b
Ranger 4 Impact    26 April 1962       15.5 S, 130.7 W       -15.5, 229.3    c
Ranger 6 Impact    2 February 1964       9.3864 N, 21.4806 E       9.3864, 21.4806    d
Ranger 7 Impact    31 July 1964       10.6340 S, 20.6770 W       -10.6340, 339.3230    d
Ranger 8 Impact    20 February 1965       2.6376 N, 24.7881 E       2.6376, 24.7881    d
Ranger 9 Impact    24 March 1965       12.8281 S, 2.3884 W       -12.8281, 357.6116    d
Luna 5 Impact    12 May 1965       1.35 S, 25.48 W       -1.35, 334.52    e
Luna 7 Impact    7 October 1965       9 N, 49 W       9., 311.    c
Luna 8 Impact    6 December 1965       9.1 N, 63.3 W       9.1, 296.7    c
Luna 9 Soft Landing    3 February 1966       7.13 N, 64.37 W       7.13, 295.63    f
Surveyor 1 Soft Landing    2 June 1966       2.4745 S, 43.3398 W       -2.4745, 316.6602    d
Luna 10 Impact    Unknown (1966)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Luna 11 Impact    Unknown (1966)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Surveyor 2 Impact    23 September 1966       5.5 N, 12.0 W       5.5, 348.0    c
Lunar Orbiter 1 Impact    29 October 1966       6.35 N, 160.71 E       6.35, 160.71    h
Luna 13 Soft Landing    24 December 1966       18.87 N, 62.05 W       18.87, 297.95    c
Luna 12 Impact    Unknown (1967)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Surveyor 3 Soft Landing    20 April 1967       3.0162 S, 13.4180 W       -3.0162, 346.5820    d
Surveyor 4 Impact (?)    17 July 1967      Unknown (0.5 N, 1.5 W)    Unknown (0.5, 358.5)  i
Surveyor 5 Impact    11 September 1967       1.4551 N, 23.1943 E       1.4551, 23.1943    d
Lunar Orbiter 3 Impact    9 October 1967       14.3 N, 92.7 W       14.3, 267.3    j
Lunar Orbiter 2 Impact    11 October 1967       3.0 N, 119.1 E       3.0, 119.1    j
Surveyor 6 Soft Landing    10 November 1967       0.4742 N, 1.4275 W       0.4742, 358.5725    d
Lunar Orbiter 4 Impact    Unknown (1967)       Unknown       Unknown    k
Surveyor 7 Soft Landing    10 January 1968       40.9812 S, 11.5127 W       -40.9812, 348.4873    d
Lunar Orbiter 5 Impact    31 January 1968       2.79 S, 83.04 W       -2.79, 276.96    l
Luna 14 Impact    Unknown       Unknown       Unknown    g
Apollo 10 LM
descent stage
Impact    Unknown (1969)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Apollo 11 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    20 July 1969       0.67416 N, 23.47314 E       0.67416, 23.47314    d
Luna 15 Impact    21 July 1969       17 N, 60 E       17., 60.    c1
Apollo 11 LM
ascent stage
Impact    Unknown (1969)      Unknown       Unknown    g
Apollo 12 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    19 November 1969       3.0128 S, 23.4219 W       -3.0128, 336.5781    d
Apollo 12 LM
ascent stage
Impact    20 November 1969       3.94 S, 21.20 W       -3.94, 338.80    m
Apollo 13
S-IVB
Impact    15 April 1970       2.5550 S, 27.8875 W       -2.5550, 332.1125    d
Luna 16 Soft Landing    20 September 1970       0.5137 S, 56.3638 E       -0.5137, 56.3638    d
Luna 17 Soft Landing    17 November 1970       38.23764 N, 35.00163 W       38.23764, 324.99837    d
Lunokhod 1 Rover    17 November 1970       38.3150 N, 35.0081 W       38.3150, 324.9919    d
Apollo 14
S-IVB
Impact    4 February 1971       8.180 S, 26.0305 W       -8.180, 333.9695    d
Apollo 14 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    5 February 1971       3.64589 S, 17.47194 W       -3.64589, 342.52806    d
Apollo 14 LM
ascent stage
Impact    7 February 1971       3.42 S, 19.67 W       -3.42, 340.33    m
Apollo 15
S-IVB
Impact    29 July 1971       1.2897 S, 11.8245 W       -1.2897, 348.1755    d
Apollo 15 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    30 July 1971       26.13239 N, 3.63330 E       26.13239, 3.63330    d
Apollo 15 LM
ascent stage
Impact    3 August 1971       26.36 N, 0.25 E       26.36, 0.25    m
Luna 18 Impact    11 September 1971       3.76 N, 56.66 E       3.76, 56.66    n
Apollo 15
subsatellite
Impact    14 September 1959       Unknown       Unknown    g
Luna 20
Soft Landing    21 February 1972       3.7863 N, 56.6242 E       3.7863, 56.6242    d
Apollo 16
S-IVB
Impact    19 April 1972       1.921 N, 24.623 W       1.921, 335.377    d
Apollo 16 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    21 April 1972       8.9734 S, 15.5011 E       -8.9734, 15.5011    d
Apollo 16 LM
ascent stage
Impact    Unknown       Unknown       Unknown    g
Apollo 16
subsatellite
Impact    29 May 1972       10.16 N, 111.9 E       10.16, 111.9    o
Apollo 16
MS boom
Impact    Unknown (1972)       Unknown       Unknown    p
Apollo 17
S-IVB
Impact    10 December 1972       4.1681 S, 12.3307 W       -4.1681, 347.6693    d
Apollo 17 LM
descent stage
Crewed Landing    11 December 1972       20.1911 N, 30.7723 E       20.1911, 30.7723    d
Apollo 17 LM
ascent stage
Impact    15 December 1972       19.97 N, 30.49 E       19.97, 30.49    m
Luna 19 Impact    Unknown (1973)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Luna 21 Soft Landing    15 January 1973       25.9994 N, 30.4076 E       25.9994, 30.4076    d
Lunokhod 2 Rover    15 January 1973       25.8323 N, 30.9222 E       25.8323, 30.9222    d
Explorer 35/
IMP-E
Impact    Unknown (1973
or later)   
   Unknown       Unknown    g
Luna 23 Soft Landing    6 November 1974       12.6667 N, 62.1511 E       12.6667 N, 62.1511    d
Luna 22 Impact    Unknown (1976)       Unknown       Unknown    g
Luna 24 Soft Landing    18 August 1976       12.7142 N, 62.2129 E       12.7142, 62.2129    d
Explorer 49/
RAE-B
Impact    Unknown (1977
or later   
   Unknown       Unknown    g
Hiten Impact    10 April 1993       34.0 S, 55.3 E       -34.0, 55.3    q
Hagoromo Impact    Unknown       Unknown       Unknown    r
Lunar
Prospector
Impact    31 July 1999       87.7 S, 42.0 E       -87.7, 42.0    o
SMART-1 Impact    3 September 2006       34.4 S, 46.2 W       -34.4, 313.8    s
Chandraya'an 1
MIP
Impact    14 November 2008       89 S, 30 W       -89., 330.    t
Ouna Impact    Unknown       Unknown       Unknown    u
Okina Impact    12 February 2009       28.213 N, 159.033 W       28.213, 200.967    v
Chang'e 1 Impact    1 March 2009       1.50 S, 52.36 E       -1.50, 52.36    w
Kaguya
Impact    10 June 2009       65.5 S, 80.4 E       -65.5, 80.4    x
LCROSS
Centaur
Impact    9 October 2009       84.6796 S, 48.7093 W       -84.6796, 311.2907    y
LCROSS
spacecraft
Impact    9 October 2009       84.719 S, 49.61 W       -84.719, 310.39    y
GRAIL A Impact    17 December 2012       75.6088 N, 26.5940 W       75.6088, 333.4060    d
GRAIL B Impact    17 December 2012       75.6508 N, 26.8341 W       75.6508, 333.1659    d
Chang'e 3 Soft Landing    14 December 2013       44.1214 N, 19.5117 W       44.1214, 340.4883    d
Yutu Rover Soft Landing    14 December 2013       44.1208 N, 19.5122 W       44.1208, 340.4878    d
LADEE Impact    18 April 2014       11.8494 N, 93.2494 W       11.8494, 266.7506    d
Chang'e 4 Soft Landing    3 January 2019       45.457 S, 177.589 E       -45.457, 177.589    d
Yutu 2 Soft Landing    3 January 2019       45.46 S, 177.59 E       -45.46, 177.59    z
Beresheet Impact    11 April 2019       32.5956 N, 19.3496 E       32.5956, 19.3496    d
Longjiang 2 Impact    31 July 2019       16.6956 N, 159.5170 E       16.6956, 159.5170    d
Vikram Impact    6 September 2019       70.881 S, 22.784 E       -70.881, 22.784    d

Notes

a - Impact site unknown, typically given as within the range of 29 - 31 N, 1 W to 1 E.

b - 3rd stage booster of Luna 2 impacted approximately 30 minutes after Luna 2 (NSSDCA).

c - Siddiqi, A., 2002, 2018; Ulivi and Harland, 2004.

c1 - Siddiqi, A., 2002, 2018; Ulivi and Harland, 2004. Luna 15 crash sites also given as 12 N, 59 E or 17 N, 49 E.

d - Object or impact imaged on surface by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), see LROC, 2016.

e - Ksanfomality, 2018. Other results for Luna 5 have been reported, various impact sites listed: 8.17 N, 23.43 W (Minikin and Ulubekhov, 1972); 30 S, 8 W (Harvey, 2007); Siddiqi, 2002); 31 S, 8 W (Ulivi and Harland, 2004; Siddiqi, 2018); or 1.6 S, 25 W (Huntress and Marov. 2011).

f - Wagner et al., 2017: Luna 9 coordinates come from initial Pravda report, LROC images show no sign of lander at these coordinates, and area topography from LROC images does not match Luna 9 images, lander site is probably at least 10 km away, direction unknown.

g - Object left in lunar orbit with no tracking or communication, orbit presumably decayed, estimated year of decay in parentheses if available.

h - Boeing Co., 1968. For Lunar Orbiter 1, impact site also listed as 6.7 N, 162 E in other references (c)

i - Cloud et al., 1967; Surveyor Project Staff, 1968. Possibly fragmented, contact lost 2.5 minutes before landing. Soft landing estimate 0.43 N, 1.62 W; ballistic trajectory (impact) estimate 0.47 N, 1.44 W [also estimated at 0.37 N, 1.55 W (soft); 0.469 N, 1.086 W (impact), O'Neil et al., 1968].

j - Boeing Co., 1968. For Lunar Orbiter 2, impact site is also listed in places as 4 N, 98 E. For Lunar Orbiter 3, some references give 14.6 N, 91.7 W or 14.3 N, 97.7 W

k - Contact lost 17 July 1967, impact dates listed as 6 October, 31 October, or “no later than 31 October, 1967”, impact possibly between 22 and 30 degrees W longitude.

l - Boeing Co., 1968

m - Coordinates estimated from seismic data in Toksoz et al., 1974, see Orloff, 2000; Wagner et al., 2017

n - Unconfirmed, contact lost with Luna 18 during landing phase 100 meters above surface, object identified in LROC image M119482862R at given coordinates may be lander.

o - Ulivi and Harland, 2004

p - Apollo 16 mass spectrometer boom jettisoned after it failed to retract.

q - Estimate from Uesugi, K., 1996. The same paper also lists an estimated impact point of 34.3 S, 55.6 E

r - Lunar orbit/impact unconfirmed, Hagoromo may have gone into heliocentric orbit (NSSDCA).

s - Burchell et al, 2015

t - Impacted in Shackleton crater near south pole, exact coordinates unknown, estimate from Sridharen et al., 2010

u - Projected to have impacted, location unknown (NSSDCA).

v - JAXA, Selene status, 18 February 2009.

w - Xinhua News Agency, 2009. Given as 1.66 S, 52.27 E in Siddiqi (2018)

x - JAXA, 2009. Press release.

y - Marshall et al., 2012, LCROSS and LCROSS Centaur impacted in permanently shadowed Cabeus crater, not easily observable.

z - Yutu 2 rover imaged by LROC, still mobile at the time the table was made, within 300 meters of Chang’e 4 as of January 2020, final coordinates TBD.

References

Boeing Co., Lunar Orbiter V Extended Mission Spacecraft Operations and Subsystem Performance, NASA CR-1142, August, 1968.

Burchell et al, SMART-1 end of life shallow regolith impact simulations, Meteoritics and Planet. Sci., 50, Nr 8, 1436-1448, 2015.

Cloud, J.D., et al., Surveyor IV flight performance final report, NASA-CR-93487, SSD 68189-4, JPL, 1967. http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680009190

Glavin, D.P., et al., In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions, Earth Moon Planets, 107, 1, 87-93

Harvey, B., Soviet and Russian lunar exploration, Praxis, 2007.

Huntress, W.T., and M.Y. Marov, Soviet robots in the solar system - mission technologies and discoveries, Praxis, 2011.

JAXA, Kaguya impact press release, 11 June 2009, https://global.jaxa.jp/press/2009/06/20090611_kaguya_e.html

Ksanfomality, L.V., Luna-5 (1965): Some results from a failed mission to the Moon, Cosmic Research, 56, 4, 276-282, 2018.

LROC, Spacecraft related coordinates - 2016 update, http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/posts/938

Marshall et al., Locating the LCROSS impact craters, Space Sci. Rev., 167, 71-92, 2012.

Minikin, S.N., and A.T. Ulubekov, Earth-space-moon, Mashinostroeniye Press, Moscow, 1972.

NSSDCA database, Lunar Timeline https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/lunartimeline.html

O'Neil, W.J., et al., Surveyor 3 and Surveyor 4 flight paths, Tech. Rept. 32-1292, JPL, 1968. http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690009698

Orloff, R.W., Apollo by the numbers, NASA SP-4029, 2000. https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4029.pdf

Roncoli, R.B., Lunar constants and models document, JPL-32296, 2005. https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/lunar_cmd_2005_jpl_d32296.pdf

Siddiqi, A.A., Deep Space Chronicle, NASA SP-2002-4524, 2002. https://history.nasa.gov/monograph24.pdf

Siddiqi, A.A., Beyond Earth, NASA SP-2018-4041, 2018. https://www.nasa.gov/connect/ebooks/beyond_earth_detail.html

Sridharan, R., et al., The sunlit lunar atmosphere: A comprehensive study by CHACE on the Moon Impact Probe of Chandrayaan-1. Planet. Space Sci. 58, 1567–1577, 2010.

Surveyor Project Staff, Surveyor IV mission report - Mission description and performance, NASA-CR-92707, Tech. Rept. 32-1210, NASA, 1968. http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680006793

Toksoz, N., et al., Structure of the Moon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12, 4, p. 549, 1974.

Ulivi, P., and D. Harland, Lunar Exploration: Human pioneers and robotic surveyors, Praxis, Chichester, UK, 2004.

Uesugi, K., Results of the MUSES-A “Hiten” Mission, Adv. Space Res., 18, 11, 69-72, 1996.

Wagner, R.V., et al., Coordinates of anthropogenic features on the Moon, Icarus, 283, 92-103, 2017.

Williams, J.G., et al., DE421 Lunar orbit, physical librations, and surface coordinates, JPL IOM 335-JW, 2008. ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/eph/planets/ioms/de421_moon_coord_iom.pdf

Xinhua News Agency, China’s lunar probe Chang’e-1 impacts Moon, 2 March 2009. http://en.people.cn/90001/90781/90876/6603492.html


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Author/Curator:
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NASA Official: Dr. David R. Williams, david.r.williams@nasa.gov
Last Updated: 2 April 2020, DRW